Evaluating the structural validity of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ), capturing the leadership factors of transformational-transactional leadership

Dr. Nuttawuth Muenjohn, Prof. Anona Armstrong


Most previous research on transformational leadership involved the use of the “Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire” (MLQ) to measure various aspects of transformational-transactional leadership. Although the MLQ is widely used, the instrument has been criticized in some areas of its measurement factors. In this study, three proposed models were tested by Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) using the multi-data source of 138 cases. Results revealed that the overall fit of the nine-correlated factor model, on its second test, was statistically significant and that indicated that the Full Leadership Model (nine-correlated leadership model) could be the most appropriately and adequately capturing the factor constructs of transformational-transactional leadership.

Keywords: Transformational leadership; Structural validity, Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire; Confirmatory Factor Analysis

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.7903/cmr.704

Contemporary Management Research / CMR / ISSN 1813-5498